母親節的反戰起源

母親節剛過,但是母親節的由來為何?其實紀念母親、崇尚母親的節日與習俗,世界各地所在多有,但是那個版本對你最有意義?你喜歡那個版本的母親節?

Truthdig看到The Antiwar Origins of Mother’s Day(母親節的反戰起源)這篇文章提供了一個或許是最為基進的版本:這個反戰的母親節的由來,是女詩人Julia Ward Howe (1819-1910)1870年的一首詩Mother’s Day Proclamation「母親節宣言」。

Truthdig上的這篇短文簡介於此,也把這篇Mother’s Day Proclamation貼過來,以紀念這個反戰的母親節的起源。

1870年,Julia Ward Howe以她的「母親節宣言」(Mother’s Day Proclamation)回應美國南北戰爭造成的恐慌,呼籲全世界的女性站起來,以任何方式反對戰爭。美國政府正式定母親節比這篇宣言晚了好幾十年,也多添了許多戰爭的冤魂。

想想看,在一百多年前美國南北戰爭的時期,Julia Ward Howe就在呼籲反戰了!但這段塵封已久的歷史,不要說是我們,大多數的美國人,對此其實也毫不知悉。

其實不但是寫出宣言的Julia Ward Howe,在她之後,持續發起運動,要求政府正式訂定母親節的Anna Jarvis(1864-1948)都是在強烈的人道主義、和平主義和女性主義的基礎之下,為了反對戰爭對人類的摧殘、為了防止更多無辜的生命被殺戮、以及為了提升女性的權益而做出不同的對母親節的呼籲的。在這個脈絡下,母親節,不僅僅是母親節,不僅僅是對母親的頌揚,而是人道主義的、世界主義的、政治的、反戰的、基進的、人民的。

看看這篇母親節的開頭,「那麼起來!今日的女性!起來!所有有良心的女性!」如果不看宣言裡的基督教意涵,是不是多少嗅到了一些1848年馬克思和恩格斯所寫的共產黨宣言的味道?

137年後的今天,美國「勇敢新基金會」(Brave New Foundation)、Code Pink和「不再有犧牲者」(No More Victims)幾個團體一起製作了一段影片,強調美國在伊拉克造成無數傷亡、讓無數母親心碎,然後請多位不同族裔的女性把Julia Ward Howe的Mother’s Day Proclamation重新念了一次,也讓世人重新認識這段光榮的、反戰的母親節的起源。

Mother’s Day Proclamation (1870)
by Julia Ward Howe

Arise then … women of this day!
Arise, all women who have hearts!
Whether your baptism be of water or of tears!
Say firmly:
“We will not have questions answered by irrelevant agencies,
Our husbands will not come to us, reeking with carnage,
For caresses and applause.
Our sons shall not be taken from us to unlearn
All that we have been able to teach them of charity, mercy and patience.
We, the women of one country,
Will be too tender of those of another country
To allow our sons to be trained to injure theirs.”

From the voice of a devastated Earth a voice goes up with
Our own. It says: “Disarm! Disarm!
The sword of murder is not the balance of justice.”
Blood does not wipe our dishonor,
Nor violence indicate possession.
As men have often forsaken the plough and the anvil
At the summons of war,
Let women now leave all that may be left of home
For a great and earnest day of counsel.
Let them meet first, as women, to bewail and commemorate the dead.
Let them solemnly take counsel with each other as to the means
Whereby the great human family can live in peace …
Each bearing after his own time the sacred impress, not of Caesar,
But of God —
In the name of womanhood and humanity, I earnestly ask
That a general congress of women without limit of nationality,
May be appointed and held at someplace deemed most convenient
And the earliest period consistent with its objects,
To promote the alliance of the different nationalities,
The amicable settlement of international questions,
The great and general interests of peace.

延伸閱讀:

母親節小辭典
母親節的由來
Wikipedia: Mother’s Day (United States)
About: Julia Ward Howe
Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalists Biography: Julia Ward Howe

照片/ Photo:Julia Ward Howe (1815- 1910) ,來源/ From:Truthdig

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