以色列總工會(HISTADRUT)令人尷尬的「反對抵制以色列」聲明

LabourStart上看到一篇以色列總工會(HISTADRUT)的聲明,這聲明顯然是衝著對以色列發起抵制的英國公共服務業工會(UNISON)運輸與一般工人工會(Transport and General Workers Union, T&GWU)而來的。工會反對國外友會抵制自己國家政府,在我看來,這真是不可思議的事。也因此,我針對這個主題,在網上找了一下,把一些相關資料和前因後果稍微作了一些整理。

到底為什麼這兩個英國工會要發起對以色列的抵制行動,而以色列總工會又為什麼要反抵制呢?

我們先來看看以色列總工會發表標題為「以色列總工會決議:駁斥抵制」(Histadrut Resolution – Refuting Boycotts)的五點措辭強硬的聲明:

Engage:
Histadrut Resolution – Refuting Boycotts

Added by David Hirsh on July 16, 2007 09:45:22 PM.

1. Out of belief in solidarity among trade unions in general, and the Israeli and Palestinian trade unions in particular, we strongly express our utter objection towards imposing any sort of boycott from any trade union that may directly or indirectly harm employees throughout the globe, regardless of religion, race, sex and nationality;

2. The Histadrut Congress rejects any attempt by a trade union to impose a boycott against the State of Israel, the Histadrut, or the Israeli employees and employers. Any sort of boycott, either as a means or as a goal is an utterly invalid act and it is an attempt to undermine the efforts to achieve a real peace between the Israeli and Palestinian peoples. This Congress believes that the actions for peace should be conducted through a policy of negotiations and discussions and not by actions of intimidations and boycotts. The efforts for peace should be made through positive actions and fair mediation rather than tempestuous declarations and a one-sided attitude, as proposed in the resolutions of UNISON and the T&GWU in Great Britain.

3. The Histadrut views the purpose of the boycott towards the Israeli trade unions and academic institutions an illegitimate means, which basically contradicts the spirit of fraternity, cooperation and solidarity, which is a guiding light for every trade union throughout the world, creates unnecessary tension and substantially damages to the relations and co-existence between the Israeli and Arab unions in general, and the Palestinian trade unions, in particular.

4. The Histadrut Congress is committed to strengthen its relations with trade unions and confederations throughout the world in general and the Palestinian trade unions in particular. Furthermore, the Congress calls on worldwide trade unions to support the enhancement of relations with our Palestinian colleagues, despite the harsh political-security situation that the Israeli and Palestinian peoples face, out of the belief that strengthening the relations between us will be an example and a model for the leadership in the region in order to achieve a comprehensive and viable peace;

5. The Histadrut Congress will not hesitate to break off its relations with any organization or trade union throughout the world which will support the imposing of a boycott that may harm Israeli employees and employers.

不但如此,根據今年7月8日的耶路撒冷郵報(The Jerusalem Post),在今年7月7日,也就是巴勒斯坦總工會(PGFTU)秘書長夏合爾‧薩依德(Shaher Sa’ed)遭到槍手挾持並威脅去職(詳見巴勒斯坦總工會(PGFTU)秘書長遭槍手挾持並要脅去職)的三天之前,以色列總工會還發表聲明,正式切斷了與英國工會的關係:

The Jerusalem Post: Histadrut to cut ties with UK union

接著,我們來看看被以色列總工會怒指為傷害了以色列勞資雙方、傷害了以色列人民感情的英國公共服務業工會(UNISON)運輸與一般工人工會(Transport and General Workers Union, T&GWU)到底是何許人也?

英國公共服務業工會(UNISON)簡介:

我們是誰?
(譯自UNISON網站)

「公共服務業工會(UNISON)是英國最大的工會,擁有超過130萬會員。我們的會員來自公共服務業,或者提供基本公共服務的私營作業者,包括了在地方政府全職或兼職工作的第一線員工與基層主管、警察,以及在大學及中小學、電力、瓦斯、水、交通及志工部門服務的勞工。去年UNISON共有155,000為新會員,平均每天新入會425人。」

簡而言之,UNISON就是英國的公共服務業工會,它也是國際公共事業勞工聯合會(Public Service International, PSI)的會員工會。

Who we are

UNISON is Britain’s biggest trade union with more than 1.3 million members. Our members are people working in the public services, for private contractors providing public services and in the essential utilities. They include frontline staff and managers working full or part time in local authorities, the NHS, the police service, colleges and schools, the electricity, gas and water industries, transport and the voluntary sector. Last year UNISON recruited 155,000 new members – 425 per day.

英國運輸與一般工人工會(Transport and General Workers Union, T&GWU)簡介:
(譯自T&GWU網站)

關於我們

擁有超過80萬會員,T&GWU是英國最大的一般性工會,我們代表各種工作現場的勞工,擁有長久而驕傲的歷史。

驕傲的歷史

創立於1922年,我們一直致力於為會員贏得最高的薪資、勞動權益、和勞動條件。請由英國運輸與一般工人工會(P&GWU)歷史獲得更多關於我們歷史的認識。

為你奮鬥

我們向您保證,我們無時無刻不在為我們會員的權益奮鬥,經由活動、為全體勞工贏得就業權、以及建立全國最低工資。請由此認識更多我們過去的各項行動

我們的組織

T&GWU立足於會員的社區和工作現場。T&GWU的組織有產業和區域的雙重考量,以確保會員在地區和全國層次都能擁有最大的代表性。請由此認識T&GWU的組織方式以及您如何參加

About us

With over 800,000 members in every type of workplace the T&G is the UK’s biggest general union, and has a long and proud tradition of representing members in the workplace.

Proud history

Since our founding in 1922, all our efforts have been directed towards winning the best possible pay, employment rights and conditions for our members. learn more about the history of the T&G.

Campaigning for you

You can be sure that at all times we are working for our members’ rights – through our campaigns, by winning new employment rights for all working people, and by establishing a national minimum wage. Find out more about our campaigns.

Our organisation

Above all, the T&G is rooted in the communities and workplaces of the people we represent. The structure of T&G, which reflects both industry and regional concerns, ensures that union members get the best representation at local and national level. You can read more about how the T&G is organised and how you fit in elsewhere on this website.

接下來,我們看看這兩個英國工會,到底為什麼對以色列提出抵制,從而惹毛了以色列總工會呢?

英國公共服務業工會(UNISON)在今年6月20日於布萊頓(Brighton)舉行的第14屆全國代表大會(14th UNISON National Delegates Conference)裡通過了一項決議(第53號決議,巴勒斯坦),要求抵制以色列。

在UNISON網站裡,我們可以看到這個決議從頭到尾的部分討論與決議全文。

在6月20日的一份工會快報裡登載了Bob Deacon這位會員代表的想法:

Motion 53
BOYCOTT ISRAEL……BUILD PALESTINE

Boycotting Israel looms large in this afternoon’s debate on Palestine. Proposer’s of motion 53 are keen the debate doesn’t confuse means and ends.

The Wolverhampton motion is foursquare behind a boycott. ‘A boycott’, says the motion, ‘will be ONE of the means to end the occupation’, build a Palestinian state and a loving home to the Refugees just as a boycott was ONE means to overthrow Apartheid.

COSATU, the South African Trade Union Federation, sees the parallels between Apartheid and Israel – Palestine. They have called for a worldwide trade union led boycott of Israel.

Motion 53 calls for an economic, cultural, academic and sporting boycott. Such a boycott will
provide a framework for campaigning. It will channel the energies of supporters.

I would ask you to consider the boycott before buying another Jaffa orange or Caterpillar fashion wear.

Motion 53 doesn’t claim that a boycott alone will end the occupation. Whilst at conference visit the Palestine Solidarity Campaign Stall situated on the 1st Floor of the Conference Centre. You may wish to join PSC. Collect from the stall the material you’ll need for work in your Branch.

Bob Deacon, Wolverhampton Branch West Midlands priority motions

在同一天,UNISON發佈了以下這份新聞稿:

UNISON pledges support for Palestine

(20/06/07) UNISON delegates today agreed to support a campaign of sustained pressure to end Israel’s occupation of Palestine.

The union was discussing its position after a turbulent few weeks for the Palestinians, which have involved intense fighting between factions, the sacking of the Hamas prime minister and resumption of US and EC diplomatic ties.

Proposing the motion, Tracy Morgan of Wolverhampton General branch said that Palestinians were “living on tenterhooks” and that a renewed campaign would give them “a sense of hope”.

Some delegates were concerned that the move was too extreme and would penalise Israelis.

But Ms Morgan assured them that the intention was not to discriminate against the Israeli people themselves.

“The occupation needs to end so that everyone can live together. And I believe that Israelis and Palestinians do want to live together.”

The motion urges Israel to respect the Palestinian people’s right to self-determination and to establish a state in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip with its capital in Jerusalem.

Conference called on the NEC to:

* continue to work with the Palestine Solidarity Campaign and others, as appropriate;
* continue to develop capacity building projects with the Palestine General Federation of Trade Unions (PGFTU);
* call upon the UK government to end the arms trade with Israel;
* produce UNISON material on Palestine to build knowledge among members;
* consider inviting a PGFTU delegation to the regions.

兩天後的6月22號,在另一份工會快報上,我們看到了Tracy Mogan這位會員代表的意見:

MOTION 53 Palestine

Yesterday, came news the European Union will restore aid to the occupied Palestinian Territories. At last some relief to communities where employment reaches eighty percent and to public service workers like us who each month for the last 18 months live on tender hooks whether this months they’ll get their wages o half their wages or none of their wages. Why was the aid stopped? Because in January 1996 the Palestinians held a democratic parliamentary elections and the West didn’t like who won. Yet in Israel parties of out-and –out Racists, people who want to transfer the Palestinian population out of the country, service in the government and billions of dollars of US and carry on regardless. One rule for Palestinians, another for Israeli’s.

Our union has supported the Palestinians ever since we formed our union in 1993. We’ve done some magnificent work with our brother and sister Trade Unionists in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, and here in the UK, with the Palestine Solidarity Campaign. Ten days ago when 20,000 demonstrated in London to say Enough! To forty years of Israeli occupation, UNISON was there. The National Banner, Keith Sonnet, Deputy General Secretary on the Platform.

The Palestine Solidarity Campaign – Like Anti Apartheid of twenty years ago – sees the Trade Unions as the base to build their campaign. Eighteen national Trade Unions representing 5 million workers are now affiliated. But, onference, all this work over all these years and the lives of the Palestinians still get worse.

So, its not enough, is it, Conference. We need more, and our motion calls for redoubled effort at National, Regional and Branch level. No doubt the most controversial part of our motion is the call for a boycott of Israel.

I understand the point of view of those who say, peace requires equality and partnership. Of course it does but where are we starting from? Can a knife and a wound be partners? First the wound must heal and the other guy must put his knife down. We think that ending the occupation is the precondition of any of this. The boycott is not and end in itself. Our aim is to end the occupation. We say ending the occupation demands concerted and sustained pressure on Israel including the boycott.

Tracy Morgan, Wolverhampton General

最後,大會的第53號決議是以以下文字通過的:

UNISON National Delegate Conference 2007
Motion 53. Palestine, Carried

Conference continues to consider that a just solution to the Palestine-Israel conflict must be based upon international law and Israel should:

1) withdraw to its 1949-67 borders;

2) allow the refugees of 1948 to return home;

3) remove all its settlements from the Occupied Palestinian Territories and Occupied Syrian Al-Joulan;

4) take down the Apartheid Wall; and

5) respect the Palestinian people’s right to national self-determination and to establish a state in the West bank and the Gaza Strip with its capital in Jerusalem.

Conference notes that the Israeli occupation has now continued for 40 years. It welcomes the formation of the “Enough!" coalition to focus protest on this anniversary.

But Conference believes that ending the occupation demands concerted and sustained pressure upon Israel including an economic, cultural, academic and sporting boycott.

Conference condemns the economic sanctions imposed upon the Occupied Palestinian Territories following Palestinian Parliamentary Elections of 25 January 2006, which make worse the appalling economic circumstances of the occupation. It is a unique example of economic sanctions imposed, not upon an occupier, but upon a population struggling against illegal military occupation.

Conference instructs the National Executive Council to:

a) continue to campaign with the Palestine Solidarity Campaign and others as appropriate;

b) continue to develop capacity building projects with the Palestine General Federation of Trade Unions (PGFTU);

c) call upon the United Kingdom government to end the arms trade with Israel;

d) produce UNISON’s own material on Palestine to build knowledge among members;

e) consider inviting a PGFTU delegation to tour regions;

f) seek ways to work with the Trades Union Congress (TUC) and other trade unions on the basis of the TUC 2006 Congress resolution;

g) raise the issue of Palestine with UNION’s overseas partners and with international trade union federations with the aims of:

i) suspending the European Union/Israel Association Agreement; and

ii) a mandatory United Nations Arms Embargo on Israel of the kind the Security Council imposed on South Africa in 1977; and

h) encourage branches and regions to affiliate to the Palestine Solidarity Campaign (PSC), help build PSC branches and consider twinning with PGFTU organised public sector workers in Palestine.

運輸與一般工人工會(Transport and General Workers Union, T&GWU)方面,今年7月2-5日同樣在布萊頓(Brighton)舉行了第42屆雙年全國代表大會(42nd Biennial Delegates Conference, BDC 2007)。大會同樣針對抵制色列製造的產品進行了討論。該工會網站上可以找到以下的正式討論紀錄:

BDC 2007

…The BDC backed calls for a boycott of Israeli goods in protest at the treatment of the Palestinian people. “We send a message to the Israel state by our support for a boycott of Israeli products and goods," said Barry Camfield. “This is not a call to boycott dialogue or for industrial action. As with South Africa, a boycott played a key part in liberating that country from apartheid. Now, we work to liberate the Palestinian people from their suffering at the hands of the Israeli state’s military machine." Conference also called for an immediate withdrawal from Iraq and the ruling out of military engagement in Iran and Syria.

很明顯的,不管是公共服務業工會(UNISON),還是運輸與一般工人工會(P&GWU),抵制都是為了促使以色列從迦薩佔領區撤軍,以停止進來以色列對巴勒斯坦地區日益猖獗的侵擾與攻擊行動,這些攻擊行動本身,不但完全違反了先前的各項和平決議,遭到世界多個國家譴責,並且不斷造成無數巴勒斯坦人民傷亡。在以色列不斷攻擊之下,世俗的法塔掌握的政府顯的越發無用,這也間接的促使巴勒斯坦極端的基本教義派哈瑪斯坐大,並在日前發動武裝暴動,佔領迦薩大部分地區,造成巴勒斯坦人民更的不安,嚴重威脅中東與全世界的和平與穩定。兩個工會都對抵制問題激烈爭論過,最後通過的原因,並非迷信抵制就可以輕鬆的解決問題、讓以色列撤軍,而是想以此對以國政府施加壓力,展現與巴勒斯坦人民鬥陣相挺的決心。抵制本身並非目的,抵制的目的是要促使以色列自佔領區撤軍。以色列總工會無視於以上清清楚楚的討論與決議,選擇與以色列政府站在一起,把這些抵制行動看成是傷害以色列勞資雙方、傷害以色列總工會和以色列政府對和平的貢獻,真是荒唐至極!

國際多個工會串連、聯手抵制單一國家政府與產品,在國際間並非新聞。最令人印象深刻的,就是二十年前全世界多個工會和人民團體齊力抵制南非白人政府時期實施的種族隔離政策(Apartheit)。在當時,南非總工會(COSATU)不但未曾「反抵制」,並且大力要求各國工會加強抵制南非政府與南非貨物。南非政府後來之所以解除種族隔離政策,國際抵制其實扮演了很重要的角色。

如果以色列總工會真的如同他們在宣言第四點裡所說的,致力於與巴勒斯坦工會合作、共同邁向和平,那他們不但不應該反抵制,更應該以身作則,加入巴勒斯坦團結運動,要求國際社會擴大對以色列政府和以色列產品的抵制,並且要求以色列政府立刻自佔領區撤軍,讓巴勒斯坦人早日真正獨立建國,並且要求以色列全體國人尊重巴勒斯坦人的權利,不可在侵犯巴勒斯坦人居住地區或給予巴人任何歧視性待遇。這樣,才能真正解決爭端、才能真正為以巴之間帶來和平。這一波對以色列政府及產品抵制的行動,其實正是由南非總工會(COSATU)發起的(詳見 Statement on launch of the of the Occupation Campaign)。

權力使人腐化,絕對的權力使人絕對的腐化,此話果然不假。以色列總工會雖有許多巴勒斯坦裔會員(以色列國內有高達十分之一國民為巴勒斯坦裔)、部分資深幹部甚至也為巴裔,但是在以色列總工會重新加入曾經率兵攻擊巴勒斯坦的工黨,並且入閣、擔任政府首長甚至總理之後,出身自以色列總工會的總理裴瑞茲(Shimon Perez)卻繼續率軍入侵巴勒斯坦,完全違背以色列工會之前的立場。現任以色列國防部長阿米爾‧裴瑞茲(Amir Peretz)之前曾攻打黎巴嫩,而他以前就是以色列總工會理事長!到底是這些當了官的工會幹部背叛了工會,還是工會背叛了自己原本應該堅持的立場?

印象裡,以色列總工會常常派出代表開會的巴勒斯坦裔幹部,那位和善、親切的老先生,讓我留下了良好的,我實在難以相信以色列總工會會選擇與政府靠在一起反對對以色列政府不義之舉的抵制,不惜斷絕與國外工會的關係。

其實從網上再找下去,不難發現以色列總工會對以色列政府的曖昧態度,早已遭受許多批評,甚至在今年2月份被包括巴勒斯坦總工會(PGFTU)在內的數個巴勒斯坦工會巴勒斯坦的工會發起抵制!(詳見:Palestinian Trade Unions call for boycott of Histadrut

台灣的國際視野非常短淺,大部分的工會對國際的聲援、響應與抵制行動,不要說是參與,連內容為何、所爭為何都不一定搞得清楚。我藉著這個機會把相關訊息作了一些簡略的整理,讓我們對以色列和巴勒斯坦乃至於國際多個工會對以色列的強烈譴責,都能有一些新的認識與理解,也能對台灣的工會與工運,有一些反省。工會當然不應該與統治者站在一起,工會當然應該與工會站在一起。以色列總工會的猙獰姿態,給了我們一個活歷史。

參考網站:
以色列總工會(HISTADRUT)
巴勒斯坦總工會(Palestine General Federation of Trade Unions, PGFTU)
巴勒斯坦團結運動(Palestine Solidarity Campaign ,PSC)
英國公共服務業工會(UNISON)
英國運輸與全體工人工會(Transport and General Workers Union, T&GWU)
南非總工會(Congress of the South African Trade Unions, COSATU)
夠了!-停止以色列佔領,還公正予巴勒斯坦人(ENOUGH-End the Israeli occupation, justice for the Palestinians)

延伸閱讀:
南非總工會(Congress of the South African Trade Unions, COSATU): Statement on launch of the of the Occupation Campaign
Palestinian Trade Unions call for boycott of Histadrut
The Jerusalem Post: Histadrut to cut ties with UK union
沾滿血腥的地中海明珠(一)
沾滿血腥的地中海明珠(二)
沾滿血腥的地中海明珠(三)
沾滿血腥的地中海明珠(四)

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